Mrs. Newmark's Page of History, Government, and Politics


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Links on Government and Politics


AP United States History

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Links on United States History


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Links on European History


America at War

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Links on the Revolution and Civil War


Advanced United States History

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Links on United States History


Civics and Economics

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My Background

More on History

Quotations About History

What Historians Do

This Day in U.S. History

Links for America at War

Revolutionary America

The Civil War

Revolutionary America


General Sites

Revolutionary War links - Multitudinous sites on the Revolution

18th Century History - Comprehensive site on world history by decade in the 18th century

Revolutionary - Claims to have a list of links second to none on the Revolution. A great resource

Internet Resources on the Revolution - Lots of links relating to causes, battles, maps, famous people

American Veterans: The American Revolution - Pictures, statistics and battle summaries

More Revolutionary War links - exactly what I said

American Revolution Home Page - timeline, battle histories and extensive biographies of key figures

Even More Links for the Revolution - Lots of links

An Outline of History - Hypertext on events leading up to the Revolution

Sons of America Revolution - Summary of the Revolution and links to articles from their journal

The Revolution Year by Year - History of the Revolution with links to more information

Links to The Revolutionary War - lots of links

America's Revolutionary War - Hypertext history of the causes of the war and major battles

A Journey towards Freedom - Online discussion for students and teachers, links, games

The History Place: American Revolution - Background and details about the American Revolution plus tips on writing a research paper

Liberty - Companion to the PBS Series with summary of events and a game you can play to test your knowledge of events

NM's Revolution - Links to sites about the American and French Revolutions

The Avalon Project: A Documentary History

Return to Revolutionary War Directory

Links for Simulation Activites

New York Freedom Trail - New York during the Revolution

Drums Along the Mohawk - Comprehensive site about New York during the Revolution, including soldiers' letters from home, information on those who dwelled in the Mowawk valley

Three Rivers - Life along the Hudson, Mohawk, and Schoharie valleys during the Revolutionary Era

The Randolphs - an elite family

The Geddys - a family of tradesmen

African Americans in Virginia

Information about the people of Williamsburg

Black soldiers in the Revolution

American Athenas - Women in the Revolution

Loyalists in South Carolina

True Interests of America Impartially Stated by Charles Inglis, a Loyalist

Women of the American Revolution - Online book

Liberty's Daughters - Women of Lexington and Concord

Sentiments of an American Woman

Religion and the Revolution

War for Independence - letters and articles from the Virginia Gazette

Return to Revolutionary War Directory

French and Indian War

French and Indian War Magazine - Lots of information

The French and Indian War - Links to information on the war

The French and Indian War - Electric Library Encyclopedia article

The Seven Years War Website - Articles and links

The French and Indian War - List of links from GeoCities

The French and Indian War: A History - story of the war year by year

French and Indian War's Impact on America - Essay from online textbook

Colonel Benjamin Franklin - article about Franklin's role in French and Indian War

Return to Revolutionary War Directory

Countdown to Revolution

John Bull and Uncle Sam - relations between Britain and Americans

Sugar Act and Stamp Act - background information

William Pitt's Speech on the Stamp Act

A Patriotic Advertisement- opposition to the Stamp Act

Cartoon: Repeal of Stamp Act

Instructions of the town of Braintree to their representative - 1765

James Otis - The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved

Massachusetts Circular Letter - 1768

John Dickensen's Letter from a Farmer II

Boston Massacre - great site with all sorts of links to depositions and John Adams' speech from the trial

Captain Thomas Preston's Account of the Boston Massacre - Also link to an anonymous account, and John Hancock's speech

Paul Revere's Etching of the Boston Massacre - Background Information

Essay on Boston Massacre - Tribute to Crispus Attucks

George Hewes' Memories of the Boston Massacre

The Regulators of North Carolina - site devoted to this lesser known battle that served as a preface to the Revolution

Patrick Henry's Give Me Liberty Speech

Boston Tea Party - short history with some hyperlinks

Boston Tea Party

The Coercive Acts

Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms - 1775

Reaction to the Continental Congress

The Mecklenburg Resolves

Common Sense by Thomas Paine

World Quest: Declaration of Independence - Summary of events leading up to the Declaration and background on the signers

The Declaration: A Bill of Indictment Against the King - Hyperlinked summary of events leading to the Declaration A User's Guide to the Declaration of Independence - Great site with history, discussion of issues involved, timeline, biographies

Writing the Declaration - John Adams' memories of how Jefferson came to write the Declaration

US History.Org - information on historic Philadelphia hosted by Independence Hall

Colonial Hall - Biographies of all the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, trivia questions on the Declaration

Return to Revolutionary War Directory

Debating Independence


For Independence

John Adams: Novanglus (response to Daniel Leonard)

Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms by John Dickinson and Thomas Jefferson

Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer II by John Dickinson

Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer IV by John Dickinson

Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! - speech by Patrick Henry 1775

The Farmer Refuted - by Alexander Hamilton in response to Samuel Seabury. Hamilton was 17 years old when he wrote this. It's rather humbling to know that, isn't it?

A Summary View of the Rights of British America - Thomas Jefferson 1774

The Declaration of Independence

The Rights of the Colonists by Samuel Adams 1772

Benjamin Franklin's preface to Samuel Adams' "Rights of the Colonists"

Thomas Paine: An Address to the People Called Quakers

Thomas Paine - Common Sense

British Voices favoring the Colonies

Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations: Of Colonies (Context for this passage)

Edmund Burke: Speech on Conciliation with America (Here is the complete speech)

William Pitt on the Stamp Act

American Loyalists

Charles Inglis: The True Interest of America Impartially Stated (Context for this passage)

Thomas Hutchinson: Strictures upon the Declaration of the Congress of Philadelphia (response to the Declaration of Independence)

Letters of Daniel Leonard (Context for this passage)

Peter Oliver on the Origin and Progress of the American Revolution

Samuel Seabury: Letters of a Westchester Farmer 1774-5

Jospeh Galloway's Speech to the First Continental Congress September 28, 1774

British Voices Opposing the Colonies

George III: Declaration of Rebellion, August 23, 1775

George III's Speech to Parliament of October 27, 1775

George III's Speech to Parliament of November 30, 1774

John Wesley: A Calm Address to our American Colonies


Battles and Military History

Battles of the Revolution - Information on selected battles

Awesome Links on the Revolution - Links on causes of the Revolution, Boston Massacre, famous people, maps, Declaration of Independence, Continental Congresses, etc. It's all here.

Canadian Forces College - more links and military history

Tactical and Weapons of the Revolutionary War - short overview

1764 Manual for British soldiers

The Continental Army - Online book from the Center of Military History

Battles of Lexington and Concord - Outline of American History

The Battle of Bunker Hill - 225th anniversary site

Battles of Trenton and Princeton - Nice summary

An account of the battle of Princeton - primary source

New Jersey during the Revolution

Partisan Warfare

Battle of Brandywine

Drums Along the Mohawk - Nice site with information on the Revolution in New York State and biographies of individuals on both sides

History of the Battle of Saratoga - primary sources, biographies of people involved

Battle of Saratoga - Information from the Battlefield site and map of the battle

Battle of Saratoga - From Worcester Polytechnic Institute, includes military analysis

Battle of Monmouth - summary

The Battle of Monmouth

South Carolina in the Revolution

Letter from Patrick Ferguson

The Battle of King's Mountain

The Battle at Cowpens

Cowpens - Articles abut people involved in the battle from the historic site web page

The Southern Campaign - short summary

The Battle of Guilford Courthouse - one man's website

Battle of Yorktown - Timeline and analysis

Yorktown - short articles on the battle with timelines

Yorktown Site - summary and timeline and information on the battle

The Navy during the Continental Period - History of the Navy from the revolution to 1890 from the Naval Historical Center

Excerpts from Joseph Plumb Martin's Diary - what a common soldier wrote about conditions in the army

More Excerpts from Joseph Plumb Martin's Diary - his time in New Jersey

Excerpts from diaries of Continental soldiers

Memoirs of Tarleton Brown, a captain in the Continental Army

Treaty of Alliance between the United States and France

Return to Revolutionary War Directory

Maps of Battles and Campaigns

Maps of National Battlefields Sites - arranged alphabetically

Maps of the Revolution - selected battle sites

Military Battles and Campaigns - historic maps

Return to Revolutionary War Directory

Famous People

Ethan Allen - Hypertext biography

The Enigma of Benedict Arnold - Article from Early America Review

Benjamin Franklin - from Franklin Institute; has biography

Benjamin Franklin - from Franklin Institute with emphasis on his scientific work

Ben Franklin - PBS site

The Autobiography of Ben Franklin - complete

The Autobiography of Ben Franklin - Excerpt

Nathanael Greene - Nice website with biography

A Biography of Alexander Hamilton - Good information

Thomas Jefferson - Monticello site

Thomas Paine's The Crisis - college essay

Mount Vernon's Educational Resources - biography of George Washington

Biography of George Washington - Online book

How George Washington and his spectacles saved the American Republic - article

The papers of Nathanael Greene

Brief Informational stories - short stories on Nathan Hale, Patrick Henry and Benjamin Franklin

Sons of Liberty: Patriots or Traitors - article

The Campaigns of Banastre Tarleton - online book

The Revolution's Black Soldiers - Summary with some links

A Scholar's Showcase - Essays on the Revolution from the role of Blacks in the Revolution to portrayals of lesser known figures in the Revolution


Return to Revolutionary War Directory


Women and the Revolution

Notable Women Ancestors - click on names of notable women to find out more about roles individual women played during the Revolution

Amazing Women of the Revolution - story of Deborah Samson

Unruly Women - article about two women involved in the Revolution

Women and the Revolution - short overview

Captain Molly - Story of first woman to be wounded in the Revolution

Deborah Samson - essay from the Massachusetts Historical Society

Women of the American Revolution - Online book

Liberty's Daughters - Women of Lexington and Concord

Sentiments of an American Woman

John McKinly writes his wife - letter from a British POW

Excerpt from the diary of a Loyalist woman on the surrender of Cornwallis

Return to Revolutionary War Directory


History of Spying during the Revolution - Good information on Intelligence techniques, personalities, and intelligence operations. Published by the CIA

Spies and the Revolution - Stories of spies and primary documents

War for Independence - letters and articles from the Virginia Gazette

Was the American Revolution a Revolution? - good essay

Little Known Facts of the Revolution

A Revolutionary Simulation - A Think Quest game that lets you simulate the role of being a commander in the Continental Army

What if the American Revolution Had Been Avoided? - Alternate History

Religion and the Revolution

Return to Revolutionary War Directory

The Civil War


General Sites

American Civil War Homepage - One of the best places to start to find links to information, battles information and biographies

The Civil War Online - Extensive link list of over 5000 Civil War links. You can spend hours here.

The Valley of the Shadow - Has extensive primary sources from both a Virginia and a Pennsylvania town; contains newspapers, diaries, obituaries, letters

The American Civil War - Informative site with history of the cause of the war, generals and other information with links

The Time of the Lincolns - PBS site with information on slavery, politics, women and the life of the ordinary soldier.

Lincoln and The Civil War - has links to newspapers in the North and South and their original articles. Great source for primary documents.

Civil War Weekly - Excerpts from real magazines of the week by week events of the Civil War

The Civil War Homepage - Civil War letters, diaries, photos, battles and documents

The - Has lots of information about almost every topic from battles to biographies of famous people involved in the war and Civil War Potpourri on various topics

Civil War Links - AOL list of links

Civil War Portrait - Explore the people, places, and events of the Civil War through the photographs and images in the Civil War Portrait. Each page includes links to related articles here on TheHistoryNet, as well as external links to Civil War sites on the internet.

Civil War Timeline - from the History Place

Rutgers' The Civil War on the Internet - Links to lots of Civil War resources including the period leading up to the war and the Abolitionist movement

Outline of the Civil War - Hyperlinked detailed outline of events of the Civil War

North and South Magazine - Online Magazine about the Civil War

The Civil War Times - Another magazine on the Civil War from The History Net; searchable archives

The Civil War in Miniature - Has tidbits of information, quizzes, games, clipart and links to other sites

America's Civil War Magazine - Has detailed articles on various topics and links to past volumes. Not all articles are available online

This Week in the Civil War - Headlines and stories for each week of the War

The Civil War in Brazoria County - Detailed study of events leading to the War, the War and Reconstruction with particular emphasis on its effect on one county in Texas

Documenting the American South - First-person narratives about the South with concentration on Southern women and slaves from UNC Chapel Hill

Maps of National Battlefields of the Civil War - extensive list arranged alphabetically

The Diary of David Humphrey Blair - diary of an Ohio soldier

Return to Civil War Directory

Causes of the War

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture - A Multimedia archive - an absolutely wonderful site

American Political Prints - Political Cartoons from Harper's Weekly - pick the year you're interested in

The Caning of Senator Sumner - Articles from newspapers in the North and South about the beating of Charles Sumner in the US Senate

The Kansas-Nebraska Act - Editorials about the Act from Northern and Southern newspapers

African Americans: 1831 - 1865 - Lots of primary documents as well as scholarly articles

Territorial Kansas Online - Lots of links to primary documents about Kansas in the 1850s

History of Bleeding Kansas - Good history with poems and newspaper editorials from the period.

Gilder- Lehrman: Antebellum Documents - Lots of primary sources (scroll down for the period you're interested in)

Memoirs of life with the Ruffians - An Englishman writes about his time with the Border Ruffians

Election of 1856 - Background information

1856 Election results

Party Platforms from 1856

Dred Scott Decision - Article from The History Place

The Dred Scott Decision - Articles from newspapers in the North and South commenting on the decision

John Brown and the Harper's Ferry Raid - lots of information on John Brown

John Brown's Holy War - Site from the PBS series, American Experience

The Father of American Terrorism - Article on John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry from American Heritage Magazine

John Brown's Raid - Articles from newspapers in the North and South at the time commenting on John Brown

John Brown's Raid - Article

Documents on Causes of the War - primary documents from the 1850s

Events and Causes of the Civil War - Southern Comfort Site which has other information about Southern states and secession

Causes of the Civil War - Primary Sources from the Southern point of view

Return to Civil War Directory


Official Records of the War of Rebellion - Great links to the actual after battle reports from both sides and newpaper articles. This should be one of your first stops.

Civil War Battles - Extensive link list to sites devoted to battles

Civil War Battles - Another extensive list of battles with information and links on each one

Civil War Battlefields - Summaries arranged by state

Civil War Battle Statistics - Chart of battles, commanders and casualties

Crisis at Fort Sumter - Detailed information

Mission To Relieve Sumter - Article

Fort Sumter - article and links

War Watchers at Bull Run - article about the crowds who came to watch the battle

Battle Between the Merrimac and the Monitor - pictures, maps and information

Hampton Roads: Battle of the Ironclads - article

Battle of the Ironclads - article and pictures

"A Very Bloody Affair" - The Battle of Shiloh

The Devil's Own Day - Battle of Shiloh

Battle of Shiloh: A Very Bloody Affair - article

Battle of Fredricksburg - Good information from Military History Online

Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania - Good information

Wilson's Creek - article from

Never Were Men So Brave - Article on Fredericksburg

Military History Online - Articles on Antietam, Fredericksburg and Gettysburg

Stonewall's Forgotten Masterpiece - Article on Stonewall Jackson's victory at Harpers' Ferry as a prelude to Antietam

Antietam - photos, biographies, medical information and information on the battle

The Battle of Antietam on the Web - good maps and narratives

The Battle of Antietam - information from

The Burning Shame of Chancellorsville - article about the Union XI Corps

The Irish Brigade at Chancellorsville - article from America's Civil War Magazine

The Taking of Burnside Bridge - Story from Antietam

Three Days at Gettysburg - Great place to start, has lots of links about the battle

Gettysburg - article by Winston Churchill

The Extraordinary Story of the Battle of Gettysburg - virtual history

The Battle of Gettysburg Homepage - Lots of information on the battle

Taking Aim at Cemetery Hill - Article about the 5th Alabama Sharpshooters

The Battle of Gettysburg - Has chronology of the battle

Battle of Gettysburg: Day One - article

The Unofficial Visitors' Guide to Gettysburg - lots of information; a must if you're planning a trip

Gettysburg: Military History Online - Site with articles and battle summaries

Failure on the Heights - article on Lee's mistakes at Gettysburg

The Rebels are Coming - Article on Pennsylvania on the eve of Gettysburg

The Fall of Vicksburg - Article on Grant's victory at Vicksburg

The Campaign for Vicksburg - hyperlinked article

Peace on Earth but not in Vicksburg - Article on life in Vicksburg during the siege

Bloody Fight in Vain - Article on Vicksburg

Grant's Operational Strategy at Vicksburg - article by a retired colonel

The Chickamauga Campaign - Description of the battle and excerpts from the generals' reports and memoirs

The Campaign for Atlanta - hyperlinked history

66 Days of Hell - accounts of Sherman's march through South Carolina

Sherman's March Through South Carolina - Article and links

Devil or Angel: William Tecumseh Sherman and a New Age of Warfare - article

March to the Sea - Short article

The Battle of Bentonville - Historic site for this NC battle

General Sherman's March Across North Carolina - article

The Siege of Petersburg - great information

The Petersburg Campaign - article and links

The End of the War - reminiscences of events from a Confederate officer

A City Saved - An article on how Raleigh, NC was saved from being burned

Surrender at Appomatox - Reminiscences of Grant's aide

Return to Civil War Directory

Primary Sources for the War

Official Records of the War of Rebellion - Great links to the actual after battle reports from both sides and newpaper articles. This should be one of your first stops.

Autobiography of Ulysses S. Grant - fully downloadable

Recollections and Letters of General Robert E. Lee, edited by his son

Autobiography of William T. Sherman - fully downloadable

Documents from Sherman's March to the Sea

Autobiography of Philip Sheridan - fully downloadable

Memoirs of James Longstreet - fully downloadable

Official Records of the War of Rebellion - THis is more complete, but not quite as easy to navigate. It does have a search box.

Official Records of the Navies of the Union and Confederacy

Harpers Weekly - Full reports from the weekly newspaper. You can search by the date of your battle and find how it was reported in the North.

Diaries - index with links to dozens of diaries

Letters - index with links to dozens of letters

Valley of the Shadow - site with almost every possible primary document from a community in Virginia's Shenendoah Valley and a community in Pennsylvania

Letters about the Civil War

Letters and Diaries from the Civil War

A Diary from Dixie - Mary Chesnut's famous diary

Life and Works of Abraham Lincoln - searchable Google book

Primary Documents on the Civil War - voluminous list of links from a New York APUSH teacher

Civil War Primary Documents - Another teacher's page

Confederate War Documents

More Civil War Documents

Documenting the South - Collection from UNC

Return to Civil War Directory

Biographies of Famous People of the Civil War

Civil War Generals - Encyclopedia of Civil War Generals

Autobiography of Ulysses S. Grant - fully downloadable

Autobiography of William T. Sherman - fully downloadable

Autobiography of Philip Sheridan - fully downloadable

Abraham Lincoln Online - information and links

Information About Abraham Lincoln - Several Links

Lincoln/Net - site devoted to his life before becoming president, has extensive library of primary documents that are searchable by subject

Experience Counts - An article that examines how Lincoln used his gifts as a politician

Commander-in-Chief Abraham Lincoln - Article about Lincoln's role during the war

Lincoln Research Site - a former history teacher has posted lots of information on Lincoln, his family and a detailed history of the assassination with fascinating details. Lots of links

Lincoln Takes the Heat - Article on how Lincoln responded to cartoons and criticism

The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln - searchable database sponsored by the Abraham Lincoln Association

The Death of Lincoln - Article

Assassination Conspiracy Sites - Compilation of sites exploring some of the mysteries surrounding Lincoln's assassination

The Capture of John Wilkes Booth - primary documents

Ulysses S. Grant Network - Lots of information and links

Grant Home Page - You can post a question about Grant

Grant's Personal Memoirs - Excerpts from his memoirs from the time he was given command of the entire army

Grant's Lifelong Struggle with Alcohol - article

The Little Giant - Stephen Douglas Homepage

Sherman's Memoirs - Excerpts from his memoirs concerning the Battle of Shiloh

Jefferson Davis Site - Lots of information on Jefferson Davis, primary sources and links

Jefferson Davis - Biography on Davis

Robert E. Lee - Article on Lee

Sources on Robert E. Lee - LInks

The Meade Archives - site devoted to General George G. Meade with biography, eyewitness accounts and his critics

General James Longstreet - Website devoted to career of this Confederate general

From Manassas to Appomatox - Excerpts from Longstreets personal memoirs about all the battles he was in

Devil Dan Sickle's Deadly Salients - Article on Gen. Sickles and the mistakes he made at Gettysburg

J.E.B. Stuart: Gettysburg's Scapegoat - biographical article

Jeb Stuart's Last Ride - Article about his final battle with Sheridan

Generals on the Web - 378 links to information on Civil War generals

The Deceptive Doctor - Dr. Samuel Webb and the conspiracy to kill Lincoln

Andrew Johnson - Biographical information from the North Carolina Encyclopedia

Spotlight Biographies - Short biographies of famous people involved in the Civil War and links to more information

Return to Civil War Directory

Slavery and African American History

Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia - Great site with extensive articles on slavery with slave narratives, stories of slave traders, the anti-slavery movement, the Underground Railroad and slave life

Slave Narratives - First Person accounts of slavery from 1682 to Reconstruction

The Encyclopedia Brittanica of Black History - Arranged by time period

Freedmen Documents - Narratives of slaves and freedmen from 1861 -1867 that has been compiled by the National Archives

North American Slave Narratives - UNC site

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture - an amazing multi-media archive with the full text online plus links to all sorts of material, including texts, songs, and movie clips, relating to the period

Judgment Day - PBS site devoted to the history of Africans in America from 1450 to 1865, use narratives and diaries to present a picture of what life was like under slavery

North American Slave Narratives - UNC site

American Slavery - A hyperlinked encyclopedia of information on peopleevents involved in the anti-slavery movement

Slavery in the Western Hemisphere - A wonderful site put together by a high school class

Escape from Slavery - Excerpts from Frederick Douglass' Autobiography

Passage to Freedom - Article from the Washington Post about a daring mass escape attempt from Washington D.C.

Quakers and the anti-slavery movement - Article by high school students

Lest We Forget - Extensive site on Black History with many links and lots of information. You can spend a long time here

Carnival of Death - The story of the Massachusetts' 54th and their doomed attack on Fort Wagner

US Colored Troops and the Civil War - Lots of information and links from the Lest We Forget Site

African American Pamphlets - a searchable database of 397 pamphlets from 1824 to 1909

African American History Challenge - Information on important 19th century African Americans with quizzes

United States Colored Troops and the Civil War - Links to sites on individual regiments and soldiers from the Lest We Forget Site

A Gallant Rush for Glory - The story of The Massachusetts 54th that was featured in the movie, Glory

Robert E. Lee on Black Confederate Troops - Article

Black Soldiers in Blue - Article on a Pennsylvania regiment

Fort Pillow: Massacre or Madness - Article on the massacre of black soldiers there

African Americans and the Civil War - Long list of links

Bright Moments - Has profiles of important 19th century African Americans and quizzes on African American History

Abolition - Library of Congress Site with pictures and texts of abolitionist literature and songs. Click through for more primary sources

Frederick Douglass - an online biography

Taking the Train to Freedom - Government site

Underground Railroad - LIst of links to information on the Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad - focus on NC's role in the founding of the Underground Railroad by Levi Coffin

Underground Railroad - Site from the History Channel

The Civil War and the African American Response - Site of the Menare Foundation which is devoted to preserving Underground Railroad sites

Underground Railroad Interactive Site- Choose your own adventure interactive site created by National Geographic

Harriet Tubman - short student paper

US Colored Troops Formed in NC - data from regiments, letters and regimental histories

The Negro as a Soldier in the War of the Rebellion - History of the Massachusetts Volunteers, 55th Regiment

Drones in the Great Hive - An African American writes bitterly of the way the Union treated its black soldiers

African History on the Web - List of links

Sources on African American History - links to primary documents on African American History

African History Hot Links - Linkds to sites concerning Black history

A Gateway to African American History - links ranging from sites on slavery to the Civil Rights Movement

Return to Civil War Directory

Women and the Homefront

Women and the Civil War - Duke University site compiling women's diaries, letters and photographs

Hearts At Home - Museum exhibit from the University of Virginia with information on topics such as women spies, education, religion, war work, etc

Remember the Ladies - information on women's roles in the Civil War including spies

Women and the Civil War - Links to lots of articles and sites

Sources on Harriet Beecher Stowe - List of links from

Harriet Beecher Stowe - Article about Mrs. Stowe and her son

Clara Barton - short biography

The Mother of the Union Army The Story of Mary Ann Bickerdyke- Illinois woman who worked in hospitals to help soldiers

Civil War Love Letters - selected letters from soldiers to their wives

The Women's Revolt of Rowan County - An article about how women in a NC county revolted over conditions during the war. A good study of what the homefront was like.

Hard Times in the Confederacy - article from the Nature Bulletin about problems with food, clothing and heat

The Women of Antebellum Richmond - Article on their domestic life before the War

Rose O'Neal Greenhow - SHort biography and all her papers and letters

The Citizens' Companion - Online Magazine devoted to life on the homefront during the War

Our Needles Are Now Our Weapons - the introductory chapter in the  Museum of the Confederacy book A Woman's War: Southern Women, Civil War, and the Confederate Legacy

Captain Sally - Short article from Civil War Times about a woman who ran a hospital and was made an officer in the Confederate Army

Women Veterans of the Civil War - Short information on women who were spies, nurses and soldiers in the war

Meet Some Nifty Ladies - Short discussion of individual women

Return to Civil War Directory


Civil War Medicine - Information on medical care, nurses and biographies of Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix

On Surgery's Cutting Edge During the Civil War - Arttilce from the Washington Post

Photographic Atlas of Civil War Injuries - pictures and case descriptions

Medical Care, Battle Wounds and Disease - encyclopedia article

The Humble Undertaker - short article on funeral practice during the Civil War

The United States Sanitary Commission - history and records

Civil War Medical Terminology - Definitions

The Surgeons at Gettysburg - article from Civil War Interactive

Clara Barton - short biography

The Mother of the Union Army The Story of Mary Ann Bickerdyke- Illinois woman who worked in hospitals to help soldiers

Anesthetics in Field and General Hospitals Of the Confederate States of America During the Civil War - article at Civil War Interactive

Return to Civil War Directory

Prisoners of War and Spies

Civil War Prisons - Information on all the prisons

Andersonville Prison Camp - Historical background, conditions and archeology at the prison site

Andersonville Prison Camp - Background information

The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz - Information, Excepts and the impact of the trial

Andersonville: A Legacy of Shame...But whose? - Defense of Captain Wirz

Andersonville: Intentional Cruelty or Victim of Circumstance - article

The Inhumanities of War - article on prison camps

Prisons, Paroles and POWs - list of links

Elmira Prison - short article

Prison of War Camps - List of prisons on each side with links to more information

Brothers Bound - Lots of information on the Prisoner of War Experience with excerpts from diaries, letters and other primary documents and links to other sites

The Life of the Prisoner - Encyclopedia Article

Intelligence and The Civil War - Good information on Union and Confederate spies

Spies in Disguise - Links to stories of women spies; student created Webquest

The Plot to burn New York City - interesting article about a plan that "could have won the war for the South"

Spying in the Civil War - short article

The Spy disguised as a Slave - article

Spies, Raiders and Partisans - list of links

The Lady Spies of the Civil War - article

Remember the Ladies - articles on women spies

Return to Civil War Directory

Arts and Leisure

Literature of the South - Lots of information on Southern literature from the Antebellum era, black literature, Civil War literature, folklore and humor. Biographies of writers from the most obscure to the better known

Poetry and Music of the Civil War - comprehensive compilation of poems and music arranged by writer and also by first lines

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture - Multimedia archive on Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom's Cabin - List of sites about Uncle Tom's Cabin - site devoted to Louisa May Alcott

Music of the Civil War - Lyrics from lots of songs from this period

Twenty-Four Notes that Tap Deep Emotions - history of Taps

Racial Cartoons and the Civil War - A history of cartoons, caricatures and the treatment of blacks from the pre-War period to after Emancipation

Civil War Photographs - Library of Congress site with information and an extensive catalogue of photographs

Matthew Brady - information from the Library of Congress

Baseball and the Civil War - article

Civil War Pipe Smoking - article on tobacco and soldiers' pipes

Contraband Whiskey - Article from America's Civil War

Civil War Dance - Discussion of Victorian Era dances and ballroom etiquette

Return to Civil War Directory

Weaponry and Naval Battles

Weapons of the Civil War - Short information on pistols and rifles from the Civil War with pictures

Weapons of the Civil War - article

Weapons of the Civil War - list of links to articles

Civil War Artillery - Detailed information on subjects such as ammunition, famous weapons and equipment with lots of links

Civil War Artillery - great site with lots of information

Handguns of the Civil War - pictures and descriptitions

The Most Common Field Pieces of the Civil War - article on artillery

Military Technology - Article about the importance of the telegraph to the war effort

Confusing Terminology of Artillery - glossary of terms

Weapons of the Civil War - Artillery of the War

The Gatling Gun - short article from the History Channel

The Gatling Gun - short article

Definitions - Terms for Civil War weapons

Civil War Field Fortifications - Detailed information, good if you're interested in military history

Strategic Supplies - Article about the difficulties of supplying the armies during the War

Naval War - History of the naval battles with links to more information

Navies in the Civil War - Detailed history of naval battles and commanders during the War

Naval Warfare of the Civil War - List of links to articles

Civil War Navies - official records of the U.S. and Confederate navies concerning the Battle of Hampton Roads

The Battle of Mobile Bay - the history of this battle that spelled the end for the Confederacy

CSS Neuse - History of NC's ironclad

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Outline on Reconstruction - Detailed outline of the issues and goals of Reconstruction

Reconstruction - Confederate Military History. History of Reconstruction from a Southern point of view, written after the war

Klu Klux Klan - Article about the KKK during Reconstruction

A Hundred Years of Terror - report on the KKK

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson - Lots of information about various aspects of the impeachment using articles from Harpers Weekly

The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Jackson - Two-part article from

Famous Trials: The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson - trial account, documents, cartoons

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Civil War Quiz - Answer questions from

The Diplomats and Diplomacy of the Civil War - college thesis

Selected Civil War Photographs - Library of Congress collection

The Trent Affair - Article with links to contemperaneous newspaper articles

The Civil War's Last Great Peace Effort - 1864-65 attempt to bring peace

Conscientious Objectors of the Civil War - article

The New York City Draft Riots - article

The New York Draft Riots -Article

The Confederate Cipher Wheel - A Southern code

How the South gathered News during the Civil War - short article about Southern journalists

Jews and the Civil War - site devoted to Jews on both sides during the war

Jewish Women and the Civil War - list of links

High Above the Battlefield - Aeronauts of the Civil War

Union and Confederate Indians in the Civil War - article

Fascinating Trivia on the Civil War

Fighting Words: Terms from Military History - Linguistic heritage of the Civil War

Who Wants to Be a Civil War Guru? - Quiz

Civil War Clip Art - Lots of images

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