Mrs. Newmark's Page of History, Government, and Politics


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Russian History
World War I and World War II

For many of these videos, I've provided the link to the first part of a multi-part video. Just follow the links on the right for the rest of the episodes. If you have any trouble with the video loading, sometimes it helps to press pause and then wait a bit for the whole video to load into your computer's cache.

High Middle Ages and Renaissance

The Plague Part 1 - from the History Channel

The Black Plague and its Social Consequences - on England

The Medicis: Godfathers of the Renaissance - PBS Documentary Part 1 Birth of a Dynasty

Part 2: The Magnificent Medici

Part 3: The Medici Pope

Part 4: Power vs. Truth

The Borgias - Part 1 of 50

The Inquisition Episode 1, Part 1

Allan Bloom gives his thoughts on Machiavelli

Machiavelli: The Prince - Part 1 of 5

Introduction to Machiavelli's The Prince - Yale University Lecture

Civilisation: Man, the Measure of All things - Kenneth Clark's documentar, Episode 4 - this episode is about the beginnings of the Renaissance in Florence

Civilisation: The Hero as Artist - Kenneth Clark's documentary, Episode 5- this episode is about Renaissance art

The Reformation

The Reluctant Revolutionary - PBS Documentary on Martin Luther, Part I

The Protestant Reformation - Part 1 from the History Channel

The Reformation - Martin Luther Part 1 of PBS documentary

Martin Luther's Here I stand: The Speech that Launche the Protestant Reformation- narration on Luther.

Trailer from the movie, Luther

Luther as a monk - Scene from the movie, Luther

Luther in Rome and with Tetzel - Longer scenes from the movie Luther

Luther before the Diet of Worms - Scene from the movie, Luther

The English Reformation - Part 1 of 6 from Simon Schama's history of England

God'S Outlaw: The Story of William Tyndale

William Tyndale: Martyr for the Bible - PBS documentary

The Making of the King James Bible

Civilisation - Protest and Communication - Episode #6 about the Reformation and 16th century writers and authors - Chapter 1

Cvilisation - Grandeur and Obedience - Episode #7 about the art of the Counter-Reformation - Chapter 1


Western Culture and Civilization

Galileo's Battle for the Heavens - PBS Documentary, episode 1

Newton's Dark Secrets - PBS Documentary Part 1 of 6

Newton: The Dark Heretic - BBC Documentary Part 1 of 6

Darwin's Dangerous Idea - Part 1 of 11

Einstein's Big Idea E=mc2 - NOVA, Part 1 of 12

Civilisation: Man, the Measure of All things - Kenneth Clark's documentar, Episode 4 - this episode is about the beginnings of the Renaissance in Florence

Civilisation: The Hero as Artist - Kenneth Clark's documentary, Episode 5- this episode is about Renaissance art

Civilisation - Protest and Communication - Episode #6 about the Reformation and 16th century writers and authors - Chapter 1

Cvilisation - Grandeur and Obedience - Episode #7 about the art of the Counter-Reformation - Chapter 1

Civilisation - The Light of Experience - Kenneth Clark's documentary, Episode #8 about Holland in the 17th century - Chapter 1

Civilisation - The Pursuit of Happiness - Kenneth Clark's documentary, Episode #9 about Rococo and Baroque musicians - Chapter 1

Civilisation - The Smile of Reason - Kenneth Clark's documentary, Episode #10 about the Enlightenment - Chapter 1

Civilisation - The Worship of Nature, Episode #11 about the beginnings of the Romantic Movement - Chapter 1

Civilisation - The Fallacies of Hope. Episode #12 about the Romantic movement in literature and art and music - Chapter 1

Civilisation - Heroic Materialism , Episode #13 about materialism and humanitarianism of the 19th century - engineers, architects, scientists, and reformers - Chapter 1

Lord Byron - Biography from The History Channel

Byron - 2003 BBC biopic


Videos on Classical Music

Great Composers: Bach - Part 1 of 7

Bach and the Lutheran Legacy - Part 1 of 6

Vivaldi's Women - Part 1 of 5 BBC Documentary

The Genius of Mozart - Part 1 of 18 BBC Docudrama

Beethoven - BBC Docudrama - Part 1 of 18

Tchaikovski - BBC Docudrama - Part 1 of 12

Videos on Art History

Art Appreciation 1: Renaissance to Baroque Art

Art Appreciation: Boticelli, Rodiana, and Raphael

Travels with Vasari Part 1 of 4

Renaissance Art History - short presentation

Paintings of Hieronymus Bosch

Western Art: Renaissance Art

Leonardo da Vinci - BBC Documentary - Part 1 of 18

Leonardo da Vinci - History Channel Documentary - Part 1 of 10

The Divine Michelangelo - BBC Documentary

Michelangelo - a short documentary from the British Museum

The Art of Michelangelo - Pietà

Albrecht Durer - Part 1 of 3

Caravaggio: The Power of Art - Simon Schama BBC documentary - Part 1

Bernini: The Power of Art - Simon Schama BBC documentary - Part 1

Sister Wendy's Grand Tour: Rome - the celebrity num looks at the art of Rome

The Artist's Studio: Titian - Part 1 of 5

Hans Holbein Part 1 of 5 of a documentary on the artist

The Rokeby Venus - Velazquez Part 1 of 5

The Secret Lives of Artists: The Madness of Vermeer Part 1 of 6

Vermeer: Master of Light Part 1 of 5

Vermeer: The Art of Painting Part 1 of 5

Rembrandt: The Public Eye Part 1 of 5

William Hogarth "Peregrinations" - excerpts from a documentary

Hogarth's A Rake's Progress - a short discussion

Hogarth's Gin Lane - 5 minute modern documentary about gin in the early 18th century

The Secret Lives of Artists: Constable in Love Part 1 of 7

Daumier: An Unusual Exhibition

Daumier: A caricaturist travel guide

The Impressionists - A BBC fact-based mini-series Episode 1, Part 1 of 6 - about the French Impressionists acted out with English accents

The Impressionists - Episode 2, Part 1 of 6

The Impressionists - Episode 3, Part 1 of 6

Degas: The Old Man Mad about Art Part 1 of 6

A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - Seurat Part 1 of 6

Cezanne: The Sense of Sight - Part 1 of 4

Pablo Picasso Biography - Part 1 of 9

Salvador Dali - Part 1 of 7 (In Spanish)

The ABC's of Dada - Part 1 of 3

Educational video by UCLA Professor Eugen Weber

The Reformation - Part 1 of 3

The Age of Absolutism - Part 1 of 3

Enlightened Despots - Part 1 of 3

Revolutions and Romantics - Part 1 of 3

History of Britain

Lots of videos on Tudor England - Here is a collection of all sorts of videos including excerpts from movies such as Anne of a Thousand Days as well as short clips from documentaries about Tudor England

The Lion in Winter - the absolutely fantastic classic Peter O'Toole and Katherine Hepburn movie

A History of Britain: Beginnings - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 3100 BC - 1000 AD

A History of Britain: Conquest - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1000 - 1087

A History of Britain: A New Dynasty - Documentry from Simon Schama covering 1087 - 1216

A History of Britain: Nations - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1216 - 1348

A History of Britain: King Death - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1348 - 1500

Henry VIII and Charles V - clip from Simon Schama Documentary

Burning Convictions - Part 1 of 6 from Simon Schama's documentary The Henrican Reformation covering 1500 - 1558

The Body of the Queen - Part 1 from Simon Schama's Documentary on Queen Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots covering 1558 - 1603

A History of Britain: The British Wars - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1603 - 1649 - chapter 1

A History of Britain: Britannia Incorporated - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1690 - 1750 - chapter 1

A History of Britain: The Wrong Empire - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1750 - 1800

A History of Britain: Forces of Nature - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1780 - 1832

A History of Britain: Victoria and Her Sisters - Documentary from Simon Schama covering 1830 - 1910

Simon Schama on Industrialization - short clip

A History of Britain: The Empire of Good Intentions - Documentary from Simon Schama covering the period 1830 - 1925

A History of Britain: The Two Winstons - Documentary from Simon Schama covering Winston Churchill and George Orwell's Winston Smith covering 1910 - 1965

David Starkey on the Monarchy - lecture

Kings and Queens: A History of Violence - a cute video showing all the rulers of England from Edward the Confessor to Elizabeth II using clips from movies and cool music.

Monarchy: The Early Kings- Part 1 of 6 A mulipart documentary by David Starkey on the kings and queens of England

Monarchy: The Medieval Monarchs - Part 1 of 6

Monarchy: A New Dynasty - Henry V Part 1 of 5

Monarchy: The Crown Imperial War of the Roses Part 1 of 5

Monarchy: The Imperial King - Henry VIII Part 1 of 6

Monarchy: A Question of Succession - The heirs of Henry VIII Part 1 of 6

Oliver Cromwell & the English Civil War - Part 1 of 4 of David Starkey's documentary

Monarchy: Revolution and Republic - Charles I Part 1 of 6

Monarchy: Cromwell the King Killer - Part 1 of 5

Monarchy: The House of Windsor - Part 1 of 10

Henry VII: Money, War and Rebellion - Clip from Simon Schama Documentary on the History of Britain

The Six Wives of Henry VIII - Masterpiece Theater Production Part 1 of 12

Anne of a Thousand Days - 1969 movie about Anne Boleyn starring Richard Burton as Henry VIII

From The Tudors - Showtime series

Jane Seymour

Anne of Cleves

Katherine Howard

Catherine Parr

Elizabeth R - Classic Masterpiece Theater Production

Part 1: The Lion's Cub (1 of 7 sections)

Part 2: The Marriage Game (1 of 8 sections)

Part 3: Shadow in the Sun (1 of 8 sections)

Part 4: Horrible Conspiracies (1 of 8 sections)

Part 5: The Enterprise of England (1 of 7 sections)

Part 6: Sweet England's Pride (1 of 6 sections)

Elizabeth - the 1998 film Part 1

Simon Schama on Anne Boleyn - Part 1 from Simon Schama documentary

Simon Schama: Elizabeth i and Mary Queen of Scots - Part 1 of 6

Battlefield Britain: Spanish Armada - Part 1 of 6

Lady Jane - movie with Helen Bonham Carter - before she went over to the Dark Lord

All you need to know about Oliver Cromwell - in 5 minutes

1536 One of the Worst Years in British History?

The Execution of Anne Boleyn - Part 1 of 3

Thomas Cranmer and the Break from Rome

Pilgrimage of Grace - 1536

The Battle of Britain in the 16th Century - Discovery Channel documentary on the Spanish Armada - Part 1 of 3

The Making of the King James Bible

The Story of the King James Bible

Cromwell - movie starring Richard Harris as Oliver Cromwell

The Trial of Charles I - Scene from the movie, Cromwell

The Execution of Charles I - Scene from the movie, Cromwell

Cromwell's speech dissolving Parliament - Scene from the movie, Cromwell

Battlefield Britain: Naseby

Charles II: The Power and the Passion - Episode 1, Part 1 of great BBC miniseries

A Harlot's Progress - BBC mini-series that fictionalizes Hogarth's series of paintings.

Battlefield Britain: Battle of the Boyne

Battlefield Britain: Culloden

George III - part 1 of a documentary

Victorian and Albert - documentary - part 1

Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - Part 1

Britain ; Blood and Steel - Part 1 of 5

The Causes of the Glorious Revolution - Interview with Michael Barone

History of Scotland: Last of the Free - Documentary from BBC Scotland - Part 1 of 6 Picts and birth of

History of Scotland: Hammer of the Scots - Documentary from BBC Scotland - Part 1 of 6 William Wallace

History of Scotland: Bishop Makes King - Part 1 of 6, covers Robert the Bruce

History of Scotland: Language is Power - Part 1 of 6 - Scotland in the 15th century

History of Scotland: Project Britain - Part 1 of 6 - Mary Queen of Scots and James Vi

History of Scotland: God's Chosen People - Documentary from BBC Scotland - Part 1 of 6 History of the Coventers and the death of Charles I

History of Scotland: Let's Pretend - Part 1 of 6 How Scotland and Britain came together to become Great Britain in 1707 and Scottish support for the Stuart pretenders to the throne

History of Scotland: The Price of Progress - Part 1 of 6 Scotland in the second half of the 18th century

History of Scotland: This Land is Our Land - Documentary from BBC Scotland - Part 1 of 6 Scotland at the beginning of the 19th century

History of Scotland: Project Scotland - Part 1 of 6 Scotland in the 20th century

Fall of the British Empire - Part 1 of 5

Britain - Blood and Steel - Part 1 of 5

Tudor England - Links from one fan of Tudor England on YouTube

Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain - Episode 1 - Advance Britannia 1945 - 1955, Part 1,

Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain - Episode 2 - The Land of Lost Content 1955 - 1964, Part 1

Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain - Episode 3 - Paradise Lost 1964 - 1979, Part 1

Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain - Episode 4 - Revolution! 1979 - 1990, Part 1

Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain - Episode 5 - New Britannia 1990 - 2007, Part 1

The Industrial Revolution - Documentary, Part 1

Documentary on the Irish Potato Famine:When Ireland Starved - Part 1 of 3

The Irish Famine

Lecture on the Irish Potato Famine in History and Memory from Dr. James Murphy of Villanova University

Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - Why Britain? Part 1

Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - The White Plague, Part 1

Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - The Mission, Part 1

Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - Heaven's Breed, Part 1

Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - Maxim Force, Part 1

Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - Empire for Sale, Part 1

In Search of Wilberforce - documentary to see whether Wilberforce deserves the responsibility for ending the slave trade in Britain

Victoria and Albert - Miniseries - Episode 1

Timewatch: Young Victoria - part one of documentary

The Crimean War

Queen Victoria's Empire - part 1 of 16

Victoria's Men - Documentary to uncover "the real Queen Victoria" - uses quotes from the Queen's diaries and letters to cover her relationships with Lord Melbourne, Prince Albert, Mr. Brown, and Benjamin Disraeli

Disraeli: The Great Game - nice miniseries about Benjamin Disraeli and his relationship with Sir William Gladstone; good coverage of the politics of the time.

Bertie and Elizabeth - a Masterpiece Theater production about George VI and his wife, Queen Elizabeth. - Episode 1 of 11

Edward VII - Miniseries - Episode 1

Abdication: A Very British Coup - documentary about the abdication of Edward VIII

Wallis and Edward - a miniseries about Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson - Episode 1

Edward VIIl: The Traitor King - Documentary - Part 1

The Gathering Storm - a great HBO film about Churchill in the period before the outbreak of World War II

Into the Storm - HBO film with Churchill reminiscing about his leadership during WWII

History of France

Versailles: The Dream of a King - documentary about the building of Versailles

The Taking of Power: a film by Roberto Rossellini about Louis XIV- in French with subtitles Episode 1

Versailles: The Palace of Pleasure - documentary about Louis XV - part I

Engineering an Empire - Part 1 of 5

Marie Antoinette: The Last Queen of France - Documentary Part 1 of 12

Marie Antoinette - 2006 film by Sofia Coppola starring Kirsten Dunst

The French Revolution - History Channel Documentary Part 1 of 9

The French Revolution - Another documentary

Napoleon - PBS Documentary

Episode 1 "To Destiny"

Episode 2 "Mastering Luck"

Episode 3 "Summit of Ambition

Episode 4 "The End"

Napoleon - a Documentary

Napoleon: Part 1 - The Early Years

Napoleon: Part 2 - The Early Campaigns

Napoleon: Part 3 - Imperial Zenith

Napoleon: Part 4 - The Spanish Ulcer

Napoleon: Part 5 - Disaster in Russia

Napoleon: Part 6 - Waterloo, the Final Curtain

Napoleon Bonaparte: Road to Moscow - Documentary

The Crimean War

The Franco-Prussian War - Documentary Part 1 of 2

The Dreyfuss Affair - Part 1 A & E Documentary

Lecture from Professor John Merriman of Yale University on the Paris Commune and its Legacy

Lecture from Professor John Merriman of Yale University on General Boulanger and Captain Dreyfus

Lecture from Professor Charles Keith of Yale University on French Imperialism

Lecture from Professor John Merriman of Yale University on Vichy France

Paris Uprising 1968

Spanish History

The fall of the Spanish Empire - Part One up to the 19th century

The fall of the Spanish Empire - Part Two Spanish American War

The Fall of the Spanish Empire - Part Three

The Fall of the Spanish Empire - Part Four

The Fall of the Spanish Empire - Part Five

The Fall of the Spanish Empire - Part Six

Russian History

Ivan the Terrible Man - Discovery Channel documentary on Ivan the Terrible Part 1 - follow links for the rest

Ivan the Terrible: Might and Madness

Russia: Land of the Tsars - Part 1 of 20 (each about 9 minutes) Follow the links for the rest.

Peter the Great: the Tyrant-Reformer - Biography episode on Peter the Great

Peter the Great - TV miniseries. Very entertaining. It's 6 hours long, but very engrossing.

Catherine the Great - PBS Documentary, Part 1 of 6

Onegin - a miniseries based on Pushkin's classic novel in verse

The Crimean War

The Bloody History of Communism - Documentary, part 1 of 14 .

Rasputin - Part 1 of 3 from Discovery Channel Documentary

The Russian Revolution - Part 1 and follow links for the rest

Lenin: Revolutionary - Part 1 of 3

Nicholas and Alexandra - Part 1 of the entire movie

Secrets of the Romanovs - Part 1

The Romanovs: An Imperial Family - Part 1 - A dramatization in Russian with subtitles

Rasputin: Dark Servant of Destiny - Part 1 - A 1996 movie starring Alan Rickman as Rasputin

Another link that has the movie, Rasputin: Dark Servant of Destiny

Most Evil Men in History: Joseph Stalin - Part 1 of 3

Engineering an Empire: Russia - Part 1

A History of Communism - part 1

The Bloody History of Communism - Part 1 of 14

World War I and II

The Great War - Part 1 of a 26-part documentary from 1964 by the BBC, CBC and ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)

The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century - 1996 PBS Documentary - Chapter 1 Explosion, Episode 1

The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century -Stalemate - Chapter 1, Episode 1

World War I Documentary - Part 1 of 104 parts

Secrets of World War I - Part 1 of 5 from the History Channel

Origins of World War 1 - short documentary

Three Kings at War - Part 1 of 5 King George V of Great Britain, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, Wilhelm II of Germany & World War I

The Great War in Colour

World War I Documentary - 25 hour documentary

Line of Fire: The Battle of the Somme

Paths of Glory - Stanley Kubrick film - part 1

World War I: And We Were Young - Part 1 of 4

World War II Documentary - Part 1 of 130

Germany 1933 - 1939 - Part 1 of 5

World War II with Walter Cronkite: The Seeds of War - Part 1 of 11

The Story of the Third Reich - Part 1 of 15

WWII: Behind Closed Doors - Stalin, the Nazis, and the West - Part I

Bloodiest Battle in History: Stalingrad - Part 1

Stalin: The Real History - History Channel Documentary, part 1

Auschwitz: The Final Solution - BBC Documentary Part 1

Escape from Auschwitz

The Holocaust - CBS Documentary, Part 1

Holocaust - a miniseries

Auschwitz: The Nazis and the Final Solution - BBC Documentary

The Gathering Storm - a great HBO film about Churchill in the period before the outbreak of World War II

Into the Storm - HBO film with Churchill reminiscing about his leadership during WWII

The Cold War

The Cold War - Documentary from Media Rich Learning

The Cold War: From World War to Cold War - Part 1

The Cold War: Containment - Part 2 - Part 1 of 2

The Cold War: Red Star Rising - Part 3

The Cold War: Reds Under the Bed - Part 4 Part 1 of 2

The Cold War: Confrontation or Peaceful Coexistence - Part 5 - Part 1 of 2

The Cold War: Cracks in the Curtain - Part 6

The Cold War: Third World Wars - Part 7

The Cold War: Kennedy and Crises - Part 8

The Cold War: Detente - Part 9

The Cold War: The Evil Empire - Part 10 - Part 1 of 2

The Cold War: The Wall - Part 11

The Renaissance

Petrus Paulus Vergerius: The New Education

Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe - selected sources 1348

Leonardo Bruni d'Arezzo: De Studiis et Litteris

Petrarch: Selected letters

Francis Petrarch: Familiar Letters - a selection of letters
Petrarch: The Ascent of Mount Ventoux

Francis Petrarch: Letter to Cicero

Petrarch's Secret

Dante Alighieri: Letter to Can Grande

Dante in Print

Dante Alighieri: The Divine Comedy - the entire text

Boccacio: Decameron - the full text

Giovanni Boccaccio: The Plague Hits Florence

Pico Della Mirandola: Oration on the Dignity of Man

Lorenzo Valla: Discourse on the Forgery of the Alleged Donation of Constantine

Diabolical Seduction: A Witch on Trial (1427) The Magistrates of Florence

Leonardo da Vinci: The Painter

Leonardo's Notes on the Cosmos

Michelangelo's Selected Poetry

Lorenzo de Medici: Paternal Advice to a Cardinal

Angelo Poliziano: Lament on the Death of Lorenzo Medici

Baldesar Castiglioni: The Book of the Courtier - the entire text

Niccolo Machiavelli: The Prince - the entire text by chapter

Niccolo Machiavelli: Republics and Monarchies - excerpt from Discourses I

Niccolo Machiavelli: History fo Florence: Lorence de' Medici

Niccolo Machiavelli: Founding a Republic - Excerpt from Discourses I

Niccolo Machiavelli: The Ancients and Liberty - excerpt from Discourses II

Laura Certa: Letter to Bibulus Sempronius

Made to Order: An Avignon Altarpiece (1453)

Giorgio Vasari: Lives of the Artists - selections

Giorgio Vasari: Michelangelo's David

Giorgio Vasari - unabridged Lives of the Artists

Gutenberg's Bible

Battista Guarino: De Ordine Docendi et Studendi

Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini: De Librorum Educatione

Rabelais: Letter from Gargantua to his son Pantagruel

Treaty Between Spain and Portugal, Concluded at Alcacovas, September 4, 1479

Privileges and Prerogatives Granted by Their Catholic Majesties to Christopher Columbus: 1492

Christopher Columbus: Letter to the King and queen of Spain, probably 1494

Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Tordesillas; June 7, 1494

Letters Patent to John Cabbot 1496

The Letters Patents of King Henry the Seventh Granted unto John Cabot and Three Sonnes...

Amerigo Vespucci: Letter to Pier Soderini, Gonfalonier of the Republic of Florence

Compact between Spain and Portugal, signed by the Catholic Sovereigns at Madrid, May 7, 1495

Three letters concerning John Cabbot's voyages:

Lorenzo Pasqualigo to his Brothers, 1497

Raimondo di Soncino: First Despatch to the Duke of Milan, 1497

Raimondo di Soncino: Second Despatch to the Duke of Milan, 1497

King Ferdinand: Letter to the Taino/Arawak Indians, around 1500

Utopia by Sir Thomas More - complete text

The Arnolfini Wedding - Jan van Eyck

Donatello's David

Raphael's School of Athens

Da Vinci's Mona Lisa

Michel de Montaigne - Essays

Michel de Montaigne: On Cannibals

The First Set of English Madrigals by John Wilbye

Miguel de Cervantes: Don Quixote - Excerpt

The Reformations and Wars of Religion

Jan Hus: Final Declaration, July 1, 1415

John Wyclif: On the Sacrament of Communion

Thomas a Kempis - Imitation of Christ

Lecture: Savonarola and the Protestant Reformation

Erasmus: In Praise of Folly

Sir Thomas More: Utopia

Lecture: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560-1715

The Reformation Guide - a wealth of information

History of the Reformation

Reformation Classics - lots and lots of documents

Martin Luther -biographical info

The 95 Theses

Project Wittenberg - lots of Martin Luther's works

Selected Works of Martin Luther

Martin Luther's Defnition of Faith

Bull of Pope Leo X Condemning the Errors of Martin Luther

The Augsburg Confession

Readings from the Protestant and Counter Reformation Documents - a nice selection of short excerpts

Lutheran Hymns

Printing during the Renaissance and Reformation - online exhibit

John Calvin: On Predestination

Anabaptist Mennonite History

Michael Sattler's Trial and Execution

The Schleitheim Confession

John Calvin: On Predestination

John Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion

The Heidelberg Catechism - Calvinist Doctrine

The Five Points of Calvinism

Complaint of Nicholas de la Fontaine Against Michael Servetus

Spain and the Reformation

The Society of Jesus

Tudor England - all sorts of links

Selected Documents of English Constitutional History - oodles of documents for laws passed arranged by reign of monarch

Primary documents on Tudor England - lots of documents

Letter of Thomas Cranmer on Henry VIII's divorce, 1533

The Suppression of Glastonbury Abbey - letter to Thomas Cromwell

Letter of Anne Bullen to Henry VIII before her execution - lots of links and information including primary sources

The Six Wives of Henry VIII - short information

Letters Written by the Six Wives of Henry VIII

The Fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey - a contemporary account

The Lyrics of King Henry VIII

Suppression of the Monasteries under Henry VIII

The Execution of the Duke of Somerset, 1552

Queen Mary's Speech at the Guildhall, 1554

Luminarium: English Literature during the Renaissance

The Religious Peace of Augsburg, 1555

The Execution of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, 1556

Queen Elizabeth's Proclamation to forbid Preaching, 1558

Queen Elizabeth - Against the Spanish Armada, 1588

Sir Francis Drake versus the Spanish Armada - newspaper report

Letters from Queen Elizabeth I to Mary Queen of Scots, and King James VI of Scotland

The Last letter of Mary, Queen of Scots, 1587

The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, 1587

Elizabeth - Act Against Papists, 1593

The Act Against Puritans, 1593

John Knox: A Faithful Admonition to the Professors of God's Truth in England, 1554

John Knox: The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, 1558

The Thirty Nine Articles, 1571

The Journal of Christopher Columbus

The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494

Amerigo Vespucci: Account of his First Voyage, 1497

John Cabot: Voyage to North America, 1497

An Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico

Ferdinand Magellan's Voyage Round the World

Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh, 1584

Pope Paul III on Slavery

Samuel de Champlain: Voyages, 1604

Instructions for the Virignia Colony, 1606

Samuel de Champlain: the Foundation of Quebec, 1608

Charter of the Dutch West India Company, 1621

The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon, 1626

Henry Blount: A Voyage Into the Levant, 1634

James' Proclamation for the Use of the Book of Common Prayer, 1604

The Execution of Guy Fawkes, 1606 - newspaper report

The Trial of Guy Fawkes

The Book of Common Prayer

Puritan Voices

St Ignatius Loyola: Spiritual Exercises

St. Francis Xavier: Letter from Japan, 1552

The Council of Trent - complete documents

Council of Trent: Rules on Prohibited Books

Council of Trent: Catechism for Parish Priests

The Tridentine Creed

The History of the Wars of Religion

The Wars of Religion

The Thirty Years War

Cardinal Richelieu's Political Statement

The Treaty of Westphalia

Map: Religious divisions

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day - a contemporary account

Archbishop William Laud: Visitation Articles, 1635

A Witch on Trial - a source from Florence

Witchcraft Documents

Religious Movements Homepage

Absolutism and Constitutionalism

Social Conditions in 17th Century France

Selected Documents of English Constitutional History - online book

British Political and Constitutional History, 1485-1750 - links to online archives

Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics

James VI and I: True Law of Free Monarchies, 1598

Reply of the House of Commons to King James I

Source Documents on the Gunpowder Plot

The Petition of Right, 1628

Thomas Hobbes; The Elements of Law Natural and Politic, 1640

England's Oaths: The Oath of Supremacie and Allegiance, 1642

The Solemn League and Covenant for Reformatin and Defence of Religion, 1643

Oliver Cromwell: Letter to his Brother-in-Law after the Battle of Marston Moor, 1644

Statement of the Levellers, 1649

Philosophical Rudiments Concerning Government and Society by Thomas Hobbes, 1651

Oliver Cromwell: At the Opening of Parliament Under the Protectorate

Thomas Hobbes - The Leviathan, 1660

Louis XIV - Letter to the Town Officers and People of Marseilles, 1664

Jean-Baptiste Colbert - Memorandum on Trade, 1664

Habeas Corpus Act, 1679

The Secret history of the Reign of Jan Sobieski 1683

Speech of King James II to the Privy Council, 1685

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685

Scottish Declaration of Toleration, 1687

An Invitation to William of Orange, 1688

English Bill of Rights, 1689

Toleration Act, 1689

Primary Sources for Peter the Great

Rembrandt in America - video from exhibit at the North Carolina Museum of Art


From the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment

Ptolemy: A Geocentric Explanation, AD 120 - AD 140

The Medieval Synthesis and the Secularizatino of Human Knowledge: The Scientific Revolution, 1543 - 1642

A Revolution in Timekeeping

Mathematicians of the 17th and 18th centuries - biographical information

Life of Galileo - lecture by Michael Fowler

Galileo and the Telescope - lecture by Michael Fowler

The Galileo Project

Isaac Newton, lecture by Michael Fowler

How Newton built on Galileo's ideas - lecture by Michael Fowler

Robert Boyle

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

Essays by Francis Bacon 1601

The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration, 1633

Rene Descartes: Discourse on Method, 1637

Dr. John Wallis: the Origin of the Royal Society, 1645 - 1662

Abraham Cowley: Of Agriculture, 1650

Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes, 1651

Pascal's Famous Wager on God's Existence, 1670

Principia Mathemaica - Sir Isaac Newton (full text)

The Second Treatise of Civil Government -by John Locke, 1690

John Harrison and the Logitude problem

A Short History of Methodism by John Wesley

Daniel Defoe: On the Education of Women, 1719

18th Century sources - lots of links from Professor Jack Lynch of Rutgers

Montesquieu: the Persian Letters, No. 13, 1721

Jonathan Swift - A Modest Proposal, 1729

The Vision of Human Progress; Vico, Gibbon and Condorcet - lecture

Henry St. john, Viscount Bolingbroke: On Patriotism, 1730-1754

Selected Essays by David Hume - many essays

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding - David Hume, 1748

The Spirit of Laws by Baron de Montesquieu, 1752

Voltaire: Patrie, in the Philosophical Dictionary, 1752

Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth by David Hume, 1754

Edmund Burke: On Taste, 1756

David Hume: Of the Standard of Taste, 1760

Creating French Culture: Treasures from the National Library of France

Voltaire: A Treatise on Toleration, 1763

Of Crimes and Punishments by Cesare Beccaria, 1764

Joseph Priestley: the Discovery of Oxygen, 1776

The Critique of Pure Reason, 1781

The Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1782

William Hogarth and 18th-Century Print Culture

The Encyclopedia of Diderot and d'Alembert

The Enlightenment: Rousseau

Salon Life

Peter the Great and the Rise of Russia - contemporary observations

Frederick II: Essay on Forms of Government

Letter about Catherine the Great

Treaty of Paris, 1763

Catherine the Great - proposed law

The Pugachev Rebellion - Selected Documents

The Division of Poland - excerpts from documents

London Lives - thousands of documents about the lives of ordinary Londoners in the 18th century

The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era

American Affairs - links to British sources on the American Revolution

The Ministry of Lord North

Proclamation of Rebellion, 1775 - King George III

Liberrty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution - essays, images, and documents from GMU

History Wiz Online exhibit on the French Revolution

Links to primary documents on the French Revolution from HistoryWiz

The French Revolution - lots of documents

Anecdotes on the Countess du Barry, 1775

Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth by M. Turgot, 1774-1776

Necker, Account to the King, 1781

Vergennes, "Memorandum against Necker" 1781

The French Revolution - huge site with lots of information

Louis XVI's Reply to the Parlement of Paris

Cahier of 1789, The Clergy of Blouis and Romorantin

Cahier of 1789, The Nobility of Blois

The State of the French Economy, 1789

The Third Estate of Versailles, Cahier of 1789

Petition of Women of the Third Estate to the King, 1789

Women's Petition to the National Assembly, 1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, 1789

Abbe Sieyes: What is the Third Estate?

Selected Writings of Edmund Burke

Speech in Commons on India, 1783

A Left-Wing Newspaper Links the Revolution to the Abolition of Slavery, 1790

1790 Excerpts from Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France - Another set of excerpts

Olympe de Gouge, Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791

British Newspaper Coverage of the Frency Revolution

A Girondin View: Roland callas on the King to declare war, 1792

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, 1792

Women's Participation in Riots over the Price of Sugar, 1792

The September Massacres, 1792

The Queen's Defense, 1793

Edmund Burke: The Death of Marie Antoinette

The Trial of Olympe de Gouges, 1793-4

Women at the Cordeliers, 1793

A Deputation of Women Citizens Demands Action on Food Prices, 1793

Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizen from the Constitution of the Year 1, 1793

Decree on the Jacobins, 1793

Robespierre: Justification of the Use of Terror

Thermidor: The Conspiracy against Robespierre, 1794

Robespierre: On the Principles of POlitical Morality, 1794

Gracchus Babeuf and the Conspiracy of the Equals, 1796

Charles Fourier on the Revolution

Robespierre: On the Festival of the Supreme Being

Maximilien Robespieere: The Cult of the Supreme Being

Marat Attacks the Nobility, 1790s

Diary of a French Noble during the Revolution

Napoleon's Proclamation to his troops in Italy

Schiller: Letters Upon the Aesthetic Education of Man

The Age of George III - the Age of the French Wars, topics page

The Regency Page

Letters and Dispatches of Horatio Nelson

Napoleon and the French Revolution

Napoleon: Proclamations to the Troops

Council of State's Recommendatino to Napoleon on Conscription

The Confederation of the Rhine and the Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, 1806

Madame de Remusat: Remembrances of Napoleon

Napoleon and Romanticism

The Napoleonic Library

Napoleon's Account of the Internal Situation of France in 1804

Napoleon: Hero or Tyrant?

The battle of Borodino by Baron Lejeune

Napoleon: Farewell to the Old Guard, 1814

The Return of Napoleon from Elba, 1815

Goya's Disasters of War

Summary of the results from the Congress of Vienna

Map of Europe in 1815 - black and white

Map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna

Napoleon Bonaparte's will, 1821

The Industrial Revolution and Ideologies

The Complete Poetical works of William Wordsworth

Goethe's Faust

Links on the Industrial Revolution

Physical Deterioration of Textile Workers, 1833

Steam Engine Library

James Watt - book by Thomas H. Marshall

Child Labour in Cotton Factories, 1807

Report on the employment of children in Factories, 1833

Evidence given before the Sadler Committee

The Age of Ideologies: General Introduction

What is Classical Liberalism?

Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations: Of Colonies "Of the advantages which Europe has derived from the discovery of America

Schools of Political Economy - lots of links

The Rise, Decline, and Reemergence of Classical Liberalism - from the LockeSmith Institute - clever, get it?

The Rise, Fall, and Renaissance of Classical Liberalism

A Timeline of Classical Liberalism

Resources on Utilitarianism - lots

Links on Liberalism

Adam Smith at the Concise Encyclopedia of Economics

Adam Smith: from The Wealth of Nations, 1776

Adam Smith: from The Principle of the Mercantile System, 1776

Thomas Malthus: from Essay on Population, 1798

Thomas Malthus: Essay on Population, 1798

Thomas Malthus: Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of Restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn, 1815

Jean Baptiste Say: Letters to Malthus on Political Economy and Stagnation of Commerce

Jeremy Bentham - lecture and information

The Bentham Project

Jeremy Bentham at Spartacus

Selected Political Works of John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill -lots of information and links to writings about Mill and as well as Mill's writings

John Stuart Mill at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

John Stuart Mill: Traditional and Revisionist Interpretations - online publication from the Library of Economics and Liberty

John Stuart Mill "On Liberty" - 1859

John Stuart Mill - lots of links

David Ricardo - from The Principles of Political Economy, 1817

David Ricardo: from The Iron Law of Wages, 1817

The Iron Law of Wages - excerpts from David Ricardo

Voting Rights before 1832

Factories and Mines - many links to information on conditions in factories and mines

Lectures on The Industrial Revolution in England by Arnold Toynbee

Industrial Revolution and the Railway System

Documents on Railways in Great Britain

Charts on population growth and industrial growth in the 19th century

Trade Unions - web links and information from The Age of George III

Documents on Trade Unions in Great Britain

Socialism, Marxism, and Trade Unionism - Crib Sheet

Marx and Engels on France - many documents

The Luddites

History of Luddites and Luddism

The Luddites and the Combination Acts

Writings of the Luddites

Luddite Documents

Account of a Luddite attack on a mill in West Riding

A Luddite timeline

A Luddite Oath

Online Luddism Index

Information of a Barnsley Weaver on the Luddites in the West Riding, 1812

The Peterloo Massacre

Law and Order - links to documents on crime in England in the 1830s and the formation of the police force

Thomas Babington Macaulay on the Reform Bill of 1832

The Utopian Socialists: Charles Fourier - lecture

Utopians and Socialists - lots of links

The Utopian Socialists: Robert Owen and Saint-Simon - lecture

Robert Owen's A New View of Society, 1813

Links to Owens writings and sources on Owens

The Organisation of Labour, 1840 by Louis Blanc

Comte de Saint-Simon - information and links

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon - links to sources in French and English

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: What is Property?

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, documents

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - lecture and links

GWF Hegel - from The Dialectic of History

The Age of Ideologies: Reflections on Karl Marx

Works of Marx and Engles by date - very extensive

The Communist Manifesto - the full text, 1848

The Communist Maifesto - excerpts

Lots of links to writings of Friedrich Engels

Condition of the Working Class in England by Fridrich Engels, complete texts, 1845 and 1885 editions

Lots of links to writings by Karl Marx

Karl Marx: from Scientific Socialism, 1844

The Romantic Era - lecture Romantic Chronology

Romantic Epics

Romantics Unbound

British Women Romantic Poets Project

The William Blake Archive

Models of the Crystal Palace

Poems by Aleksandr Pushkin (in English)

Reforms and Revolution

Robert Peel web - This wonderful site combines information on everything in English history from 1830 - 1850 as well as extensive primary documents

Contemporary Literature from the Peel Web - extensive links to excerpts from literature from the period

Corn Laws - extensive links to documents

Chartism - extensive links

The Chartists - links to documents

Aboard a Slave Ship, 1829

Selected Documents of English Constitutional History - oodles of documents for laws passed arranged by reign of monarch

Documents on Poor Relief in Great Britain

Documents on Public Health in Great Britain

Documents on Religion in the 19th century in Great Britain

Documents on Rural Life in Great Britain in the 19th Century

Child Labour - A Spartacus site with information on those who opposed and defended child labor

Mass Politics and the Revolutions of 1848 - Great sources and information from the University of Birmingham

19th Century life - discussion of reforms taken in the 19th century

Contemporary literature - from 19th century

Links to English political cartoons 1776 - 1887

The Conservative Order: Links to primary documents

British Political Personalities in the 19th Century - lots of information and links

Queen Victoria - extensive biographical information and links

Victorian Age in literature - excerpts and documents

Pre-Victorian authors - lots and lots of links and information

19th Century British and Irish Authors

The Elizabeth Gaskell Web

The Age of Ideologies: The World of Auguste Comte - lecture

The Carsbad Resolutions, 1819

Irish Potato Famine - great background infromation from the History Place

Irish Potato Famine - good information from the BBC

Views of the Famine - extensive excerpts from British and Irish papers

Mass Politics and the Revolutions of 1848 - lots of background info and primary documents

The Revolution of 1848 - many documents

The French Constitution of 1830

Condition of the July Monarchy, 1830-1848

Documents of the Revolution of 1848 in France

Percy B. St. John's observations of the French Revoluion in 1848

Alphonse de Lamartine - History of the Revolution of 1848

Images of the Revolution of 1848 in Prussia

Carl Schurz: A Look Back at 1848

Frankfurt Constitution of 1849

Hungary in 1848-1849 - several documents

Hungarian Declaration of Independence, April, 1849

Revolutions of 1848

Urbanization and Nationalism


The Victorian Web - oy, such a lot of lovely links and information - it goes on forever

Victorian London- thousands of pages of primary documents about all aspects of life in Victorian London

Victorian Station - information on Victorian design

List of Victorian Web Sites

Victoria and her Prime Ministers

Welcome to 1876 Victorian England

Queen Victoria's Empire - PBS site

The Ladies Treasury - a magazine of Victorian and Edwardian costume

Debate in Parliament on Women's suffrage

Arguments against Women's Suffrage

The Claims of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Consider (1867)

John Stuart Mill: On Liberty - excerpt

The Growth of Political Rights in Britain in the 19th Century: sources on radicals, luddites, Peterloo, Captain Swing, The Great Reform Act, Chartists, White Slavery, and Suffragettes

The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti

The Dickens Page

The Brontë Sisters Web

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, documents

Emile Zola: Germinal - excerpt

Belinsky's letter to Nikolai Gogol, 1847

Mikhail Bakunin Archive - many documents

Turgenev's definition of Nihilism, as presented in Fathers and Sons

Children's Literature, Chiefly from the 19th Century

The First Impressionist Exhibition, 1874 - includes images that were displayed and then selected comments from critics

Links and information on Women's Suffrage - Spartacus site

The Claim of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Considered by Helen Taylor

Excerpt from a speech by Emmeline Pankhurst

Selected Suffragist documents

Documents for and against womens suffrage

Louis Pasteur: Germ Theory - excerpt

J. H. Gladsone: Points of Supposed Collision Between the Scriptures and Natural Science

Irish Affairs - many links

Irish Affairs - more links

Tables on the Spread of Industrialization

The Crimean War - many links to both primary and secondary sources, maps, cartoons, literature, and photgraphs

Giuseppe Mazzini: An Essay on the Duties of Man

Italian Unification

Documents of Italian Unification, 1846 - 1861

Garibaldi: Report on the Conquest of Naples, 1860

King Victor Emmanuel: Address to Parliament, Rome, 1871

The Austrian Constitution of 1867

Documents of German Unification - excerpts

The wars of German unification

German Law in English translation

Bismarck and the Ems Telegram

Otto von Bismarck, Memoirs - excerpts

A War Correspondent in the Franco-Prussian war, 1870

Bismarck and the "Polish Question" Speech to the Prussian Parliament, January 28, 1886

History of the Paris Commune - many documents

General Boulanger and the Boulangist Movement - many documents

The Dreyfus affair, 1894-1906 - many documents

J'Accuse, Emile Zola, 1898

Vienna 1900

Sigmund Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900

British Documents online 1816 - 1918


Kaiserreich, 1871-1918 German Government documents in translation

European Imperialism

Robert Clive: Battle of Plassey, 1757

Robert Clive: Speech in Commons on India, 1772

India: Regulating Act, 1773

Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations: of Colonies, 1776

Edmund Burke: Speech in Commons on India, 1783

The Reception of the First English Ambassador to China, 1792

Qian Long: Letter to George III, 1793

Attempts to Control the Opium Trade, 1810-11

Raja Rammohan Roy: A Second Conference Between an Advocate for, and An Opponent of the Practice of Buring Widows Alive, 1820

William Bentinck: On Ritual Murder in India, 1829

An Account of Sati from Vikrama's Adventures

The Napier Affair, 1834

Lin Zixu, Lin Tse-Hsu: Letter of Advice to Queen Victoria, 1839

Commissioner Lin: Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839 (another version)

Commissioner Lin and the Opium Merchants: An Edict

The Chinese Opium Wars

Mountstuart Elphinstone: Indian Customs and Manners, 1840

Africa Before the Scramble: Britain and the Niger Trade, 1841

The Treaty of Nanking, 1942

The People of Canton: Against the English, 1842

Negotiating with African Chiefs, 1844

War and Peace in India, 1845-46, selected documents

John Stuart Mill: On Colonies and Colonization, 1848

John Stuart Mill: On Colonies and Colonization, 1848

Sir Monier Monier-Williams: Camp Life in India, 1850

Survival of the Fittest Applied to Human Kind, Herbert Spencer, 1851

The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864

Sir Richard Francis Burton: A Pilgrimage to Mecca, 1853

Commodore Matthew Perry: When We Landed in Japan, 1854

The Schools of Japan, 1854

Livingstone Discovers Victoria Falls, 1855

British India by Charles Creighton Hazewell, 1857

The Indian Revolt by Charles Creighton Hazewell, 1857

Elisa Greathed: An Account of the OPening of the Indian Mutiny at Meerut, 1857

Moshweshewe: Letter to Sir George Grey, 1858 (The establishment of Basutoland)

Robert Traill Spence Lowell: The Relief of Lucknow

Paul du Chaillu: Travels in Africa, 1868-1870

Edmondo de Amicis: One Day in Morocco, c. 1870

Sir Monier Monier-Williams: The Towers of Silence, 1870

Anthony Trollope: The Diamond Fields of South Africa, 1870

Mark Twain, Roughing It: The Gentle, Inoffensive Chinese, 1871

Dadabhai Naoroji: The Benefits of British Rule, 1871

Sir Henry M. Stanley: How I Found Livingstone, 1871

Charles Dudley Warner: Up the Cataracts of the Nile, 1875

The Story of the Suez Canal, from All the Year Round, 1876

Germany under Bismarck

Field Marshal Lord Roberts: When Queen Victoria Became Empress of India, 1877

Rev. Arthur Male: The Hill of Bones, Afghanistan 1878

Imperialism: A German Viewpoint, 1879

Alfred Egmont Hake: The Death of General Gordon at Khartoum, 1885

Stanley's Congo Treaties

Imperialism: Sample of Native Treaty with Africans

The Constitution of the Empire of Japan, 1889

The Austrian Empire 1870 - 1914

Thomas Babington Macaulay: On Empire and Education

British Imperialistic Anthems

Yan Phou Lee: When I went to School in China, 1880

British Missionary Letters: Urging the Annexation of the South Sea Islands, 1883

Jules Ferry: On French Colonial Expansion, 1884

Charles James Wills: A Persian wedding, 1885

S. G. W. Benjamin Life in Persia, 1885

The Death of General Gordon at Khartoum, 1885

The Berlin Conference: The General Act of Feb. 26, 1885

Report of the British Consul, Roger Casement, on the Administration of the Congo Free State

Prorgram of the Pan-German League, 1890-1898

George E. Thompson: The Great Market of Tripoli, c. 1890

Colonel L. du Couret: Justice in Arabia, c. 1890

Sir Edwin Arnold: A Japanese Dinner Party, 1890

Alice M. Bacon: How Japanese ladies Go Shopping, 1890

Capt. F. D. Lugard: The Rise of Our East African Empire, 1893

Wilfred Scawen Blunt: Britain's Imperial Destiny, 1896-99

Winston S. Churchill: The Battle of Omdurman, 1898

The Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899

The White Man's Burden, Rudyard Kipling, 1899

The Poor Man's Burden, George McNeill, 1899

First Open Door Note, 1899

Fei Ch'i-hao: The Boxer Rebellion, 1900

Yao Chen-Yuan: My Adventures During the Boxer War, 1900

Pierre Loti: When the Allies Entered Peking, 1900

W.A.P. Martin: The Worship of Ancestors, 1900

Kaiser Wilhelm II and German Interests in China

Statistics on the Extent of Colonialism in 1900 and 1939

Kaiser Wilhelm II; A Place in the Sun, 1901

William Henry Furness III: A Visit to a Head-Hunter of Borneo, 1901

John Hobson: Imperialism, 1902 - excerpts

John Hobson: Economic Parasites of Imperialism

Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness - excerpt, 1902

Gustave Freensen: In the German South African Army, 1903-1904

Edward Morel: The Black Man's Burden, 1903

Lord Landsdowne's dispatch to the signatories of the Berlin Act, 1903

Using "Tribe" and "Tribalism" Categories to Misunderstand Africa - article by David Wiley of MSU

French in West Africa

Roger Casement on the Administration of the Congo Free State, 1904

Lt. Tadayoshi Sakurai: The Attack upon Port Arthur, 1905

George Orwell: Shooting an Elephant

Theodore Roosevelt: The Threat of Japan

John W. Foster: The Chinese Boycott, from The Atlantic Monthly, Jan. 1906

Okuma: from Fifty Years of New Japan, 1907-08

The Earl of Cromer: Why Britain Acquired Egypt in 1882, 1908

Isaac Taylor Headland: Court Life in China: The Capital, Its Officials and People, 1909

Mohandas Gandhi: Indian Home Rule, 1909

Eustache de Lory: The Persian Bazaars, 1910

Proclamation of the Abdication of the Manchus, 1912

V.I. Lenin: Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1916

Joseph A. Schumpeter: The Sociology of Imperialism, 1918

The Opium Monopoly by Ellen N. La Motte, 1920

The Conquest of Civilization, selections, by James Henry Breasted, 1926

World War One

Documents on Bosnia

Count von Beust: Memoirs of the Ausgleich, 1867

The Hungaro-Croatian Compromise of 1868

The Treaty of Berlin, 1878 - Excerpts on the Balkans

The South Slavs before the First World War

The Eastern crisis of 1875-78: letters to W.E. Gladstone

The Dual Alliance Between Austria-Hungary and Germany - Oct. 7, 1879

The Three Emperors League- June 18, 1881 - lots of information and links and primary documents.

Memoirs and Diaries of World War One - lots of sources

Trenches on the Web: An Internet History of the Great War

Documents of World War I - lots of links

Links to Other WWI Sites - massive links

The World War I Document Archive - a treasure trove

A Guide to WWI Battlefields and History of the First World War

The Zimmermann Telegram, 1917

Captain Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen (The Red Baron) - Air Warfare

Fritz Kreisler: Four Weeks in the Trenches, 1915

Private Donald Fraser, canadian expeditionary Force: Selections from My Daily Journal, 1915-1916

Rosa Luxemburg, "The War and the Workers: - The Junius Pamphlet, 1916

The Proclamation of the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic

Ireland, 1916 - and Beyond by Henry W. Massingham

Siegfried Sassoon poetry

Siegfried Sassoon: Attack, 1918

World War I Poetry

Rupert Brooks: War Sonnets

John McCrae: In Flanders Fields, 1915

Wilfred Owen: Dulce et Decorum Est, 1918

Art of the First World War

John Dos Passos: One Man's Initiation: 1917, A Novel, 1920

All Quiet on the Western Front, Erich Maria Remarque, excerpts

The Major Museums of Europe commemorate the 80th anniversary of the Armistice of 1918

Woodrow Wilson: Speech on the Fourteen Points, Jan. 8, 1918

The Balfour Declaration, 1917

The Mandate for Palestine July 24, 1922

A. J. Balfour: Defense of the Palestine Mandate, 1922

The Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles, excerpts

The Versailles Treaty, June 28, 1919

John Maynard Keynes: The Economic Consequences of the Peace - excerpts

The Russian Revolution

The Lenin Internet Archive: works (translated), biography, images, and audio

The Stalin Internet Archive

The Russian Revolution - lots of links

Guide to Russian History sites - links and descriptions from Bucknell professor

V.I. Lenin: What is to Be Done? 1902

Soviet History Archive

Russia History Index - links to sites

Timeline of the Russian Revolution

Several encounters with Georgii Valentinovich Plekhanov

The Role of the Individual in History by G.V. Plekhanov

Marie Sukloff: The Story of an Assassination, 1914

The April Theses: A Blueprint for Revolution, 1917 Vladimir I. Lenin

The Fundamental Law of Land Socializaiton, 1918

The (Lenin) Constitution of 1918

Did World War One cause the Russian Revolution? - Documents

Early Soviet History

Emma Goldman: My Disillusionment in Russia

Leon Trotsky: My Life - autobiography, 1930

The Interwar Years

European Culture in the Interwar Years - lots of links

Oswald Spengler: The Decline of the West, 1922

Paul Valery: On European Civilization and the European Mind, 1919, 1922

Bertrand Russell: Icarus or The Future of Science, 1924

Sigmund Freud: Civilization and Die Weltanschaung, 1918

Documents of the Interwar Years - Mount Holyoke Site - oodles of links

Lenin's New Economic Policy

The Stalin Internet Archive

Eduard Benes's: The Rationale for the Little Entente, 1924

The Kellogg-Briand Pact - documents

Mein Kampf - the full text

Adolf Hitler: The Discovery of Antisemitism in Vienna

Did the Depression lead to the end of optimism? - Documents

Hitler's Speech at the 1927 Nuremberg Rally

Joseph Goebbels: We Demand - 1927 essay

Sterilization for "The Unfit" - Hitlerian Nightmare Begins

Manifesto of the Racist Scientists, 1938 Italian manifesto

Spain, 1931-1936, From Monarchy to Civil War, An Eyewitness Account by Ronald HIlton

Nuremburg Laws on Citizenship and Race: Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health; Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor

World War Documents - British

Hitler's Concordat with the Catholic Church, 1933

Links on Soviet Russia 1920 - 1945

The 1936 Constitution of the USSR

History of the Spanish Revolution, 1934-1939

The Doctrine of Fascism by Benito Mussolini, 1932

Sterilization for "the Unfit": The Hitlerian Nightmare Begins, 1933 Nazi German Government

The "Fundamental Ideas" of Fascism, Benito Mussolini, 1935

The Rhineland Crisis: The French Reaction

The Rhineland Crisis: The British Reaction

Hitler Historical Museum - links to speeches and writings

Pope Pius XI's Encyclical on the Church and the German Reich, 1937

Kristallnacht Order

The Munich Agreement - documents

Neville Champerlain: "Peace in Our Time" 1938

A Surrealist Manifesto

Nazi Propaganda Site - lots of odious links

Anti-Semitic Nazi propaganda - many links

The Nazi Party: Admission Requirements

Nazi-Soviet Relations 1930-1941 - lots of links - documents in translation

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

The Western Guarantee of Polish Independence

British War Bluebook - lots of links to speeches, diplomatic notes leading up to the outbreak of war

French Yellow Book - diplomatic documents from July 1936 - September 1939 - documents are translated into English

World War II Diplomatic Documents - lots of links

World War II

The Atlantic Conference, 1941

Winston Churchill - May 13, 1940 "Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat" speech

Winston Churchill - June 4, 1940 "We Shall Fight on the Beaches" speech

Winston Churchill - June 18, 1940 "Their Finest Hour" speech

Molotov: Reaction to German Invasion of 1941

World War II Documents - lots of links

World War II Diplomatic Documents - lots of links

The Washington Conference 1941-1942 - lots of links

The Wannsee Conference - minutes

Documentary Resourses on the Holocaust - documents in both French and English

Documents on the Holocaust - Mount Holyoke site - many links

Excerpts from Original Nazi documents relating to the Holocaust - many documents translated into English

Hermann Friedrich Graebe: Account of Holocaust Mass Shooting, 1942

"The Warsaw Ghetto is No More" - German document

Pius XII and the Holocaust : A Reader - many links

The Bretton woods Agreements, 1944

The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb - from the Truman Library

Potsdam Conference - documents

World War II Songs

Nuremberg Trials Collection - lots of documents

"Nuremberg -- A Fair Trial? Dangerous Precedent," 1946 article from the Atlantic Magazine

"Nuremberg in Retrospect" 1946 article from the Atlantic Magazine

Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz: Testimony at Nuremburg, 1946

Testimony excerpt - a German witness describes prisoners from Dachau

Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners - excerpt

The Trial of Adolf Eichman


After World War II - the Present

The Stalin Internet Archive

Statute of Westminster, 1931

Schools of Thought in Economics

Jawaharlal Nehru: Marxism, Capitalism and Non-Alignment, 1941

Charter of the United Nations, June 26, 1945

Decolonization - many links

Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung

Sir William Beveridge: Social and Allied Services (The Beveridge Report). 1942

The Documents of the Nuremberg Trials

Winston Churchill's Sinews of Peace Address, 1946

Let Us Face The Future: A Declaration of Labour Policy for the Consideration of the nation, 1945

Africa Since 1945 - lots of links

History of Algerian Independence - many documents

Sir Winston Churchill: Conservative Party Principles, 1946

Stalin's Response to Churchill, 1946

The Harvard Project of Cold War Studies

Cold War Links - lots of links

The Artist as a witness of Freedom by Albert Camus, 1947

United Nations Documents -- lots of links

UN Resolution on the Prevention and PUnishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1949

UN Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

NATO Treaty, 1949

Western European Security and Co-operation Documents 1948 - 1955

The Second Sex: Existential Feminism, Simone de Beauvoir, 1949

A. L. Geyer: The Case for Apartheid, 1953

The Absurd Man, Albert Camus

Algerian war: 1954 - 1962

Ukkhonto we Sizwe (Military wing of the African National Congress): We are at War! (1961)

John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking the Cold War, Chapter One

Warsaw Pact, 1955

Khrushchev and Eisenhower: Summit Statement, May 1, 1960

Khrushchev: Address to the UN General Assembly, September, 1960

USA and USSR: Exchange of Notes on the Berlin Wall

Soviet leaders from Khrushchev through Gorbachev

President Sukarno of Indonesia: Speech at the Opening of the Bandung Conference, 1955

Prime Minister Nehru: Speech to Bandung Conference Political Committee, 1955

Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech, 1956

Sixteen Political, Economic, and Ideological Points, Budapest, October 22, 1956

Statement of the Soviet Government, October 30, 1956

The Hungarian Revolt, October 23 - November 4, 1956 edited by Richard Lettis and William I. Morris

The Treaty of Rome, 1957

United Nations: Delcaration on Granting Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 1960

The History of British Social Security

Albert Camus and Existentialism

US Dept of State Statement on the European Common Market and the Free Trade Area, 1957

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: What I Learned in the Gulag

African People's Conference: Resolution on Imperialism and Colonialism, 1958

The U-2 Incident 1960

Nikita Khrushchev: Speech at the UN General Assembly, 1960

USA and USSR: Exchange of Notes on the Berlin Wall, 1961

UN Resolution: On Race Conflict in South Africa, 1961

Links on Ethnic Conflict - lots of links from 1861 - 1995

The "Fundamental Codes of a Culture" Deconstruct the Order of Things, Michel Foucault, 1961

United Nations: Cuban Missile Crisis Debate, 1962

Charles de Gaulle, French Premier: Speech at Constantine, Algeria, October 3, 1958

Charles de Gaulle: Europe and Its Role in World Affairs, 1964

Charles de Gaulle: France's Attitude Toward US Policy in Vietnam, 1964

Charles de Gaulle: Le Grand "non": Britain's Proposed Entry Into the European Common Market, 1967

The Brezhnev Doctrine, 1968

Paris May-June 1968, France History Archive - many links

Documents on 1968 - Comparing Paris, Prague, and Chicago

Report on the Occupation of the Sorbonne, May 1968

Treatment of Dissidents in the 'Years of Stagnation'

Camp David Accords, 1978

The "Twenty-One Demands": A Call for Workers' Rights and Freedom in a Socialist State - Solidarity Union, 1980

The Last Heir of Lenin Explains His Reformm Plans: Perestroika and Glasnost, Mikhail Gorbachev, 1986

The Good Friday Agreement: 1998

Revolution in Eastern Europe: 1989

1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down - lecture

Nelson Mandela: Speech on Release from Prison, 1990

Nelson Mandela: Inaugural Address, Ma 10, 1994

Dayton Peace Accords

Timeline of European Integration

The Demographics of Immigration

Yugoslavia disintegrates: 1919 - 1970

Perestroika as defined by the Communist Party Plenum of Jan 1987

Margaret Thatcher: Christianity and wealth, Speech to the Church of Scotland General Assembly, 1988

The Paradox of Liberalism versus Illiberalism: The British Middle Class Portrayed in 1980s Popular Culture

Eastern Europe after 1989

Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic's address to the nation

Conflict within the Soviet Bloc

A Few Philosophers, beginning with Albert Camus

Failed Radicals in Europe: Anti-war Protests and Unrest in France, 1968

Documents relating to Global Economy Issues

Postmodernism and Postmodernists - lots of links


The European Union

Profile: The European Union - from BBC

Debate on the Euro and Europe at The Economist. Has arguments for both sides

Policies of the European Union - You can click on a policy area and see what the EU does in that area - EUROPA: Gateway to the European Union

To what extent has the European Union fulfilled its founding goals? - Helium site - posts by readers on the subject

Strengths and weaknesses of the European Union - Helium site - posts by readers

Was the formation of the European Union a good idea? - Helium site - posts by readers

The Antiglobalisation and the European Union: Critics of Europe - policy paper from Notre Europe

The 50th Anniversary of the EU Offers Hope and Criticism

Ten things the Eu has done for you

EU Treaty Deal Meets Praise and Criticism

Does the European Union Promote Peace? Analysis, critique and alternatives

How the money is spent by country - graphics of spending and payment by country

Q&A: The Lisbon Treaty

A Trillion for Europe, With Doubts Attached

Will the euro survive?

Poland: Arguments pro and against Coalition with eastern European Countries

Advantages and Disadvantages of the European Union - Thinkquest

Lasting benefits of an enlarged EU

It's All Greek to Me: Understanding the Debt Crisis in Europe

Europe's Web of Debt - graphic

EU Enlargement: Costs, benefits, and Strategies for Central and Eastern European Countries

Contemplating the Future of the European Union

The Costs and Benefits of the Euro in European Monetary Union Countries

Impact of Enlargement - links to studies of the achievements and challenges of enlargement

Advantages and Disadvantages of EU membership and of expansion

Advantages and drawbacks of EU membership - the structural dimension

Russia and the European Union: The Sources and Limits of "Special Relationships"

How divided Europe came together

The Costs and Benefits of the European Union - for the UK

Arguments in Favor

The Benefits and Achievements of EU Single Market

So, What has Europe Ever Done for Us?

50 Reasons to love the European Union

Why I am an unashamed enthusiast for Europe

The EU Reform Treaty - A Response to Criticisms

Perfidious Albion again: The British are different, really. But they are stuck with Europe - and it with them

European Commission: Better Regulation - actions taken by the EU

Is the EU good for economic health?

Celebrating the Environmental Union

Benefits of EU membership to Scotland - short video

EU Leaders Sign New Reform Treaty - news report from 2007

Buffeted by financial crisis, countries seek euro's shelter - from 2008

Joining European Union, List of Benefits - for Poland

The Benefits of France Being in European Union

The European Union: Democratic Values, The Euro, Crises and Migration - report

Anniversary of the fall of the iron curtain and 2004 enlargement: civil society created history

Benefits of Accession to the European Union - for Cyprus

World Publics See European Union as a "Positive Influence"

European enlargement - advantages fo rexisting EU members

Arguments Opposed

The Coming European Crack-up

Murder on the EU Express

The EU has failed: Who are the Truly Guilty Men?

Greece's Crisis Could Torpedo Europe's Recovery

Why the EU Constitution is bad for Britain and bad for the US

The EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy: How it threatens Transatlantic Security

TeamEurope - blog liinking to articles against the EU

What the EU Constitution does: a 14-point critical summary

Speak No Evil - article about the lack of freedom of speech in the EU

The Governance of a Fragile Eurozone

For EU Critics, a Cautionary Tale

Defense of the EU Lacks Substance

Why aren't we shocked by a corrupt EU?

EU Court Outlaws Criticism of EU

EUDemocrats: "Eurosceptics" are "EU-critics" or "Eu-reformists"

EU attacked for "inefficient" aid

Another Spectacular Failure of EU Leadership

The EU Goes Fishin'

Eurozone in crisis - graphics

How the EU's Lisbon Treat Affects US National Security

The EU Reform Treaty" A Threat to the Transatlantic Alliance

The EU's Insecurity Policy

The Unelected, Unaccountable EU and the G20

Czech President Warns Against "Europeanism"

Vaclav Klaus: The Man with the EU's Fate in His Hands

Czech President Vaclav Klaus questions ever closer European political integration in speech to the European Parliament

Multi-billion euro rescue buys time but no solution

IMF sees weak growth for Europe

The EU Treaty's Flying Circus

Eu faces tough questions as euro continues to slide

Euros Reluctant Embrace of Turkey shadows Talks - article from 2005

Euro in Crisis - links to stories about the effect of the 2010 financial crisis on the Euro

Debts and deficits in Europe

Europe bails out banks - but what about the rest of us?

Czechs, Poles cooler to euro as they watch debt crisis

Can the EU achieve an area of freedom, security and justice?

Growing Economic Crisis Threatens the Idea of One Europe

EU Legitimacy Disintegrating

The EU's Insecurity Policy